Biodiversity Conservation:- The projects that address the promotion, conservation, management and sustainable use of biodiversity in ecosystems (arid, semi-arid, coastal, marine, freshwater, forest or mountain ecosystem). The operational programmes are restricted to in site conservation activities and the conservation of the genetic variability of wild relatives of domesticated species. Projects are located in areas that contain globally significant biodiversity.

Arid and Semi-Arid Ecosystem Operational Programme
Main focus of the projects will be on the conservation and sustainable use of endemic biodiversity including grasslands and Mediterranean-type ecosystems, where biodiversity is threatened by increased pressure from more intensified land use, drought, and desertification.
Potential eligible activities:

  • Prevention and control of land degradation through development of sustainable use methods for biodiversity conservation.
  • Demonstration of community-based approaches for the conservation of natural habitats and ecosystems in and around conservation areas, including Protected Areas.
  • Strategic interventions to rehabilitate degraded areas in and around communities, e.g. restoration of native fodder species/vegetative cover which are crucial to pastoral economies.
  • Capacity-building efforts to promote the preservation and application of traditional and indigenous knowledge and practices relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity/agro-biodiversity.

  • Coastal, Marine and Freshwater Ecosystem
    The projects concentrates on the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in coastal, wetlands, mangroves, estuarine, marine, and freshwater ecosystem.
    Potential eligible activities:
  • Development of integrated management plans for communities and localities in coastal, lacustrine and riverine areas.
  • Creating of community-based livelihood alternatives to relieve pressure on Protected Areas which conserve coastal, marine, and freshwater biodiversity.
  • Creation of community-based livelihood alternatives that rehabilitate populations of endemic species in those areas.

  • Forest Ecosystem
    These projects support sustainable community-based activities in forest conservation areas, including Protected Areas, and those that demonstrate and apply sustainable use methods in forestry as part of integrated land management in agricultural and forest landscapes, focusing primarily on tropical and temperate forest ecosystem areas which are at risk.

    Potential eligible activities:
  • Community- led (participatory research) inventories of forest biodiversity and traditional/indigenous sustainable knowledge and use of those resources.
  • Establishment of community sustainable development projects around Protected Areas.
  • Creation of participatory schemes for natural resource management by local and indigenous communities, which include techniques to conserve wild relatives of domesticated plants and animals for the sustainable use of biodiversity.
  • Provision of alternative means of livelihood for local and indigenous communities residing inside the buffer zones of globally significant biodiversity areas.
  • Promotion of sustainable production and use of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFP).
  • Development of environmentally sustainable ecotourism schemes with local participation and management.

  • Mountain Ecosystem
    The projects here will address the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in areas which are under increasing human pressure and are on the imminent threat of degradation, including the Meso-American, Andean, East African and Himalayan regions and the mountainous regions of the Indo-China peninsular, and tropical islands.

    Potential eligible activities:
  • Promotion of sustainable land use practices on mountain slopes in order to protect habitats of global significance.
  • Rehabilitation of mountain slopes as a means of promoting local agro-biodiversity through the incorporation of traditional/ancient terracing and water management approaches.

  • Out of the 34 globally recognized biodiversity hotspots, 4 have been identified in India namely: The Himalayas, The Western Ghats, The North-East and the Nicobar Islands. The main agenda in India is to promote the conservation of indigenous flora and fauna and also give importance to the rapid afforestation with the help of community action which will lead to a global impact.